South Sudan

Tracing Birth, Evolution of SPLA/M

seek geneva; font-size: small; line-height: 200%;”>The SPLA/M was a great contribution and compliment by Koryom battalions, capsule Mour Mour-battalions, order and other battalions.

It is important to remember how the Guerilla Movement was formed and how the so-called Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA/M) came to be established on May 16, 1983.

It is a great journey and moral value by the men who laid-down their lives in the course of freedom.

We need to remember the journey of the SPLA/M, how it was formed, and how it will end in South Sudan.

The 12-battalions known as Koryom in Dinka language include; Zindia, Lion, Elephant, Hippo, Cobra, Aideed, Agrab, Rhino, Bilpam, Akuela, Timtha, and Raad.


And along the lines, in 1984, the Mour-Mour, Shark, and Kuei-Chol battalions emerged from all the regions of South Sudan (Upper Nile, Bhar-el-Ghazel and Equatoria).

In addition, the Red-Army known as the Lost and Found of South Sudan emerged from all the regions in 1987-1989.

Then Katiba-Banna known as women in uniform and other battalions in South Sudan went to Ethiopia for better training.

The SPLA/M was built from all ethnic-groups in South Sudan during the struggles.

The eyewitness and founders of the SPLA/M Party include; Dr John Garang de Mabior, Cdr Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, Cdr William Nyuon Beny, Cdr Arok Thon Arok, Cdr Nyacigak Nyaculuk, Cdr Salva Kiir Mayardit, Cdr Martin Majier Gai, Cdr, Bol Nyawan, Cdr Kuol Manyang Juuk, Cdr Awet Akot, Cdr, Madul Kang, Cdr Makoor Lual, Cdr Majok Mach Aloung, Cdr Mach Gouei, Cdr Anyaar Apiu, Cdr John Kulang, Cdr Yusif Kuwa Mekki, Cdr Martin Manyiel Ayuel, Cdr Gelario Modi, Cdr Agar Gum Akol, Cdr Francis Ngor Macich, Cdr Makuei Lueth Kang, Cdr Pagan Amum, Cdr Joseph Oduho, and many more.

The bushy-bearded Christian leader (Dr. Garang Mabior) known for “juggling a stone and an egg,” sustained a two-decade civil war against Khartoum.

His long fight was crowned by a peace deal that gives southerners a mixed population of Christians and animists a share of power in all regions, resources, and promise of democratic elections in the history of Sudan.

It is long struggle that gave the second most powerful position to the Southerners in 2005.

Dr. Garang set his own feet in Khartoum for the first time in 22 years on Friday, July 9, 2005 as the Vice-President of Sudan.

Dr. Garang signed the peace deal in Nairobi-Kenya on January 9, 2004 with Omar al-Bashir and in the presence of President Mwai Kibaki.

“I agreed to sign the peace, but this peace I sign is not for Omar-al Bashir or me. It is for all citizens of Sudan. I sign this peace for everyone in Sudan and those who consider themselves to be second class citizens…that will be their choice,” he said.

Sadly, we lost him in July 2005 upon which the North-South peace deal ended.

It is a great idea to remember and recall the history of war in South and North.

Those who recall the footsteps of a struggle always succeed in everything.

Those who know the outlet and inlet always succeed in every corner of their journey.

Indeed, the SPLA/M did a great job to overthrow President Nimeriri, Swar al Dahab, and Sadiq al-Mahdiin in 1984 to 1989.

This is a great achievement by the men of South Sudan who desrve to be honoured for their great achievement in history.

Every history must be acknowledged and recalled as a moral value to keep the next generations moving.

Important to note, the Koryom battalion known as (Locust) marched to Ethiopia for better training to keep the vision of the party alive.

It had over 10,000 volunteers who were divided into 12-battalions known as Koryom.

Koryom is the backbone of the SPLA/M in South Sudan and other battalion forces that joined the Movement in the 80s.

The vast majorities of Koryom emerged from Bor nearly 8,000 and 2,000 emerged from Bhar el-Ghazal, Panaru, and other places in South Sudan.

Some of the Koryoms were cattle keepers who moved to Ethiopia for better training to defend the Southern territory.

Everyone could move freely in South Sudan before the current crisis broke out.

They all deserve honours for their great achievement in Struggle.

We don’t need to change the facts, whether we are in charge or not.

Let us keep the history alive by remembering the SPLA/M vision in South Sudan.

Manyok Mabiei is currently in Chicago, IL. He is a one of the SPLA-Chapter Founders in Chicago and a former leader of the Red-Army of South Sudan.

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